Holden Furber; The English Utilitarians and India. By Eric Stokes. (New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. xvi, $), The American Historical Rev. OTHER REVIEWS. Jacobinism. He has also demonstrated the permanent damage to its prestige suffered by the upper house in when it became a. utilitarianism on Indian education: K. A. Ballhatchet suggests that it was exerted in India, not London, while Eric Stokes doubts that it was a significant factor even .

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One has only to add Maine, Fitzjames Stephen, and Morley for later Indian history, to enumerate most of the important figures in the intellectual history of English liberalism in the nine- teenth century. Such a policy was founded on the contrary assumption to that of Cornwallis; the end was the protection of the com- munity by government and not against it.

It was the heart of the British administrative system, and the one subject which brought British rule into intimate contact with the lives of the Indian peasantry.

The English Utilitarians And India by Eric Stokes

With Cornwallis, although the leaning towards change was much more conscious, the temper was still conservative. Hence the Evangelical gospel, al- though originating in an intense interior experience, was one of action and mission in the external world.

This was no less than the extent to which the executive arm of the State should be strengthened and expanded. The Company summoned an im- pressive array of witnesses before the Parliamentary Com- mittee in proof of this point, including Warren Hastings, Teignmouth, and Munro.

It has been usual to associate the Mills with the movement for English education which Macaulay carried to victory by his Education Minute of The ruling vice of our government is innovation Against the tendency that would transform British rule from a personal, paternal government, to an impersonal, mechanical administration, englixh took their stand.

The Reform of the Superior Government 3.

With its powers of jurisdiction defined in only the vaguest manner it was possible for the Court by legal construction to extend I Ninth Report of Select Committee on the A fears of InAta, xySs; Burke, fVorks, edn.

Finally, for all the tedious work of typing and indexing, I would like to record my gratitude to Mrs. With the impetus it was given by the twin force of evangelicalism and free trade, it was now to be consciously directed upon Indian society itself and to become an explicit movement for revolu- tionary change. Revenue, and judicial, and when practicable, military powers also, should be exercised by the same person, union, not division, should be the order of our rule.

The Mills were naturally suspect with regard to India because of their employment in the Company; and to their influence was attributed the marked silence of the West- minster Review and the Radical Morning Chronicle with regard to this stronghold of outworn privilege. Evan- gelicalism, the rock upon which the character of the nine- teenth-century Englishman was founded, owed much of its impetus to the Indian connexion.


The one sphere in which all Liberal opinion accorded the State a right of intervention was education. According to them Cornwallis had the choice of consolidating British rule on the basis of the Mughal system or of adopting an entirely new and foreign foundation.

Both are in the highest degree conceited of themselves, and full of affected contempt for others. He tried, unsuccessfully as it proved, to confine the British element in the administration to the Supreme Government at Calcutta, and to leave the ordinary provincial administration in the hands of the old Indian official class. In doing this it tended to divide and confuse the Liberal aims. The political education of a nation is a work of time; and while it is in progress, we shall be as safe as it will be possible for us to be.

Most of their papers might have been written by men who were never out of England, and their projects are nearly as applicable to that country as to India. WeUesley was sufficiently proud of this despatch to have it pubhshed in London in x8ii see India Office Library Tracts, vol.

They distrusted the chilly dogmatics of the reforming spirit, which was to eradicate in the name of utility all the historical associations connected with the rise of British power; and in the cause of efficiency, simplicity, and economy, sought to reduce the historical modes of government to one centralized, uniform practice.

Originating with Wesley and Whitfield in the form of methodism, the new outlook assumed importance when it began to find adherents among the upper middle classes under the name of the Evangelical revival in the last decades of the eighteenth century.

Eric Stokes, The English Utilitarians and India – PhilPapers

At the root of this primitive and barbaric state of society was despotism — a stokew political and religious tyranny. Wilberforce, Life of Wilberforce, vol.

That the Indian people might one day demand and gain their independence was not a matter for regret. Just a moment while we sign you in to your Goodreads account. They could not renounce the entire philosophy of the Cornwallis system, because in utilitariaans end It represented the permanent English political instinct; but they sought to modify that philosophy in the manner in which Burke had redeemed whiggism from its superficiality and crudeness.

For under a free trade India would rise rapidly into prosperity as a envlish for British manufactures and a source of raw materials.

The English Utilitarians and India

Malcolm said he dreaded no human being certainly no Nabob or Maharajah. Mill was too good a Benthamite to suggest a frontal assault on Indian customs and prejudices; but clearly the marking off of individual property rights in the soil would act as a solvent of the traditional joint-ownership and communal control, which he considered to be the utilitarianz of a primitive state of society.


The argument rested on the belief, common to the whole radical school of thought, that human nature was intrinsically the same in all races. The Reform of the Administration 2. The need could be met only by reducing the status of the tbe presidencies of Madras and Bombay to subordinate units of one strong central government, and so imposing unity and uniformity.

Philosophic radicalism gave it an intellectual basis and supplied it with the sciences of political economy, law, and government. He thought it could only be victorious if the attack were made on a much broader front, so that the Indian character could be subjected to the play of reformative influences from every angle A The whole of the Western mind had to be introduced into India.

The attitude persisted when the considerations of expediency which had prompted it were no longer so strong. The present administrative connection benefits families, but a strict commercial union between the first manufacturing and the first producing country in the world, would be a solid foundation of strength and prosperity to our whole nation.

From until the British power was preoccu- pied with internal war and political problems. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. The proper object of imperial stokees was limited, as for government in general, to the efficient provision of law and order.

The English Utilitarians And India

Akash marked it as to-read Oct 12, Although most of them spent the main part of their careers in military and diplomatic activities, their concrete and visible fric was the ryoPwar system of land settlement and general administration, first developed by Munro, and extended by him throughout the Madras Presidency in the period of his governorship from until There are no discussion topics on this book yet.

Once engpish latter were secured, all else followed.

For reasons of speed, economy, and simplicity, there would be only one judge, and only one appeal from his decision reic a single metropolitan court of appeal. They knew it most clearly m the form of the Cornwallis settlement, and in the eighteen-twenties they recognized its presence in a new aggressive shape.

To obtain any success it had not andd to provide practical ideas for the solution of practical issues, but it had to link itself with some larger tendency.

His antipathy towards landed aristocracy was not alone responsible for his attitude. Yaduvendra Pundir marked it as to-read Jan 15, It was India which most clearly exposed the paradox in utilitarianism between the principle of liberty and the principle of authority, and englisy was Fitzjames Stephen, on his return from India, who challenged the intellectual basis of J.